Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the pharynx, part of the throat, which is immediately behind the sky and extends to the Adam's apple (larynx). Inflammation usually occurs when viruses (or sometimes bacteria) from a cold, flu, or sinus infection enter the throat.
With pharyngitis, symptoms appear like soreness, a "lump" sensation and a sore throat, aggravated by swallowing, dry cough, fever.
In most cases, a complete cure is possible, the transition of an acute process to a chronic one is possible. Less serious complications can occur: rheumatic lesions of the heart and joints.
Depending on which pathogen caused pharyngitis (virus or bacterium), treatment is prescribed, because bacterial inflammation must be treated with antibiotics, which the doctor selects, and viral inflammation passes by itself and requires only symptomatic treatment.
This pathology very rarely occurs in isolation, mainly it is combined with acute inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Pharyngitis, symptoms and treatment of the disease, we will consider in this article.
In about 70% of cases, the cause of pharyngitis is a virus, the remaining 30% are divided between bacteria and pathogenic fungi, as well as allergens. Separately, you can identify a traumatic lesion. Such pharyngitis, the causes of which are listed above, is acute, having a very favorable prognosis for the patient.
The transition of the disease to the chronic form is noted during the long-term course of frequent (especially not treated) respiratory infections by adherence to the primary viral infection of bacterial inflammation.
To cure pharyngitis, you should stop smoking at the first symptoms and consult a doctor for advice.
Symptoms of pharyngitis
In the case of acute pharyngitis, symptoms include fever (slight or up to 37.5 degrees), painful swallowing, dry throat, dry cough, redness of the throat, presence of mucopurulent plaque on the throat (see photo).
With the diagnosis of chronic pharyngitis, the symptoms are not accompanied by fever. As a rule, there are complaints of tickling, tickling, scratching or burning in the throat, drying of the pharynx, pain when swallowing, dry cough, the need to cough up thick and viscous mucus.
With pharyngitis, the symptoms in adults can be combined with signs of a concomitant disease: ARVI, flu, etc. The symptoms of acute pharyngitis are sometimes mistaken for signs of tonsillitis (sore throats). It may escalate from time to time. However, its symptoms appear similar to the symptoms of the acute phase.
Symptoms of atrophic type are expressed by severe dryness of the pharynx. Its mucous membrane is thinned, sometimes it is covered with dried mucus. Sometimes non-mucosal surfaces show injected vessels. Hypertrophic type is characterized by the presence of hyperplastic lymphoid tissue on the posterior pharyngeal wall. Tubopharyngeal cushions may also increase. In the event of an exacerbation of the disease, hyperemia and edema of the mucous membrane are added to these symptoms.
Chronic pharyngitis in children is sometimes expressed not only by persistent dry cough, but also by the presence of wheezing. Therefore, during the examination, the physician should clearly differentiate this condition with bronchial asthma. How to treat pharyngitis will depend on the cause of its occurrence, so do not self-medicate.
Pharyngitis in children
Pharyngitis is very difficult in young children, this disease is especially dangerous for babies under one year old. Sometimes, PF in babies is accompanied by a rise in temperature of up to 400. Because of a sore throat, the child refuses to eat. Swelling of the mucous membranes can become the trigger of suffocation symptoms. The presence of inflammation in the pharynx in young children often leads to the development of acute otitis media.
An attempt to self-treatment can cause irreparable harm to the immature body of the child. At the slightest suspicion of PF in a baby, it is necessary to immediately consult a doctor.
Factors contributing to the development of chronic form
- constitutional features of the structure of the pharyngeal mucosa and the entire gastrointestinal tract;
- prolonged exposure to exogenous factors (dust, hot, dry or smoky air, chemicals);
- difficulty nasal breathing (mouth breathing, abuse of decongestants);
- smoking and alcohol abuse;
- endocrine disorders (menopause, hypothyroidism, etc.);
- avitaminosis A;
- diabetes mellitus, pulmonary, renal and heart failure.
Avoid staying in dry, highly dusty and smoky rooms, categorically exclude alcohol, smoking, spicy and spicy foods, cold drinks and, of course, try to talk less. In the prevention and treatment of pharyngitis in adults, the elimination of various harmful factors acting negatively on the pharyngeal mucosa is of great importance.
First of all, the treatment of pharyngitis involves the elimination of the factor that provoked the disease. With the help of antibiotics, this is achieved in the case of a bacterial type of disease, and in the case of pharyngitis, which was caused by prolonged inhalation of irritating substances or smoke, using personal protection methods or changing jobs.
In acute and exacerbation of chronic pharyngitis, not accompanied by severe disorders of the general state, symptomatic treatment is sufficient, including a sparing diet, hot foot baths, warming compresses on the front surface of the neck, milk with honey, steam inhalation and gargling.
- Gargling should be at least 6 times a day, if possible, every hour. For rinsing use furatsilinom, in a dilution of 1: 5000 or alkaline solutions.
- From the diet exclude annoying foods (hot, cold, sour, spicy, salty). It is recommended to drink plenty of fluids up to 1.5-2 liters per day. Smoking should stop.
- Combined preparations based on vegetable oils with the addition of antiseptics in the form of sprays (Ingalipt, Angilex, Chlorophilipta, etc.) are used, which should be regularly applied to the inflamed mucous membrane of the pharyngeal cavity no less than 3-4 times a day.
- Tablets for resorption, containing sulfonamides (septifril, pharyngosept).
- When a viral infection is not recommended taking antibiotics, they are prescribed by a doctor only when a bacterial or fungal pathogen is detected.
In chronic pharyngitis, treatment begins with the rehabilitation of foci of chronic infection of the upper respiratory tract and oral cavity. With ineffectiveness, surgical debridement is possible strictly according to indications. In hypertrophic forms, areas of hypertrophy (hyperplasia) must be cauterized, cryodestruction and laser coagulation should be used.
Antibiotics for pharyngitis
As a preventive measure, in order to prevent the development of complications of bacterial etiology, the indications for the use of antibiotics for pharyngitis are:
- the development of bacterial angina, or exacerbation of the chronic form of tonsillitis;
- evidence of the risk of developing pneumonia;
- inflammatory disease of the bronchi (especially obstructive form);
- purulent otitis media;
- infection in the nasal sinuses;
- feverish conditions lasting more than 2 days, or earlier, at the discretion of the doctor;
- low-grade fever that persists for more than 5-6 days;
- protracted pharyngitis (more than a month).
Antibiotics for acute pharyngitis are usually prescribed from the penicillin series. Oral cephalosporins (cefazolin, ceftriaxone) can be used less frequently.
How to treat pharyngitis at home
From folk remedies for the treatment of pharyngitis at home are widely used the following:
- It is recommended to inhale steamed potatoes or rinse with fresh potato juice.
- Gargling, inhalation of herbs: chamomile, sage, calendula, eucalyptus.
- To restore the mucous membrane, which is necessary for subatrophic pharyngitis, it is good to lubricate the throat with rosehip oil or peach.
- Home treatment of pharyngitis with propolis. 30 drops of tincture 30% propolis for 0.5 cup of warm water - use for rinsing. This folk remedy is better to use for the treatment of the acute form of the disease.
- As a febrifuge for pharyngitis, you can use linden decoction, raspberry tea, wild strawberry.
- Warming drink of warm milk with honey, hot (but not scalding!) Tea with lemon, or chamomile tea;
- Blackberry leaf brew a glass of boiling water. This decoction is good to gargle, it is effective in inflammation of the oral mucous membrane (oral mucosa): pharyngitis, bleeding gums, sore throats, laryngitis, etc.
Proven folk remedies for pharyngitis are good because they provide a mild effect on the body, increasing local and general resistance.